Visual Tracker Benchmark

Visual Trackers

We have tested 29 publicly available visual trackers. The trackers are listed in chronological order.

NAME CODE REFERENCE
CPF CPF P. Pe ́rez, C. Hue, J. Vermaak, and M. Gangnet. Color-Based Probabilistic Tracking. In ECCV, 2002.
KMS KMS D. Comaniciu, V. Ramesh, and P. Meer. Kernel-Based Object Tracking. PAMI, 25(5):564–577, 2003.
SMS SMS R. Collins. Mean-shift Blob Tracking through Scale Space. In CVPR, 2003.
VR-V VIVID/VR R. T. Collins, Y. Liu, and M. Leordeanu. Online Selection of Discriminative Tracking Features. PAMI, 27(10):1631–1643, 2005. [www]
* We also evaluated four other trackers included in the VIVID tracker suite. (PD-V, RS-V, MS-V, and TM-V).
Frag Frag A. Adam, E. Rivlin, and I. Shimshoni. Robust Fragments-based Tracking using the Integral Histogram. In CVPR, 2006. [www]
OAB OAB H. Grabner, M. Grabner, and H. Bischof. Real-Time Tracking via On-line Boosting. In BMVC, 2006. [www]
IVT IVT D. Ross, J. Lim, R.-S. Lin, and M.-H. Yang. Incremental Learning for Robust Visual Tracking. IJCV, 77(1):125–141, 2008. [www]
SemiT SBT H. Grabner, C. Leistner, and H. Bischof. Semi-supervised On-Line Boosting for Robust Tracking. In ECCV, 2008. [www]
MIL MIL B. Babenko, M.-H. Yang, and S. Belongie. Visual Tracking with Online Multiple Instance Learning. In CVPR, 2009. [www]
BSBT BSBT S. Stalder, H. Grabner, and L. van Gool. Beyond Semi-Supervised Tracking: Tracking Should Be as Simple as Detection, but not Simpler than Recognition. In ICCV Workshop, 2009. [www]
TLD TLD Z. Kalal, J. Matas, and K. Mikolajczyk. P-N Learning: Bootstrapping Binary Classifiers by Structural Constraints. In CVPR, 2010. [www]
VTD J. Kwon and K. M. Lee. Visual Tracking Decomposition. In CVPR, 2010. [www]
CXT CXT T. B. Dinh, N. Vo, and G. Medioni. Context Tracker: Exploring supporters and distracters in unconstrained environments. In CVPR, 2011. [www]
LSK LSK B. Liu, J. Huang, L. Yang, and C. Kulikowsk. Robust Tracking using Local Sparse Appearance Model and K-Selection. In CVPR, 2011. [www]
Struck Struck S. Hare, A. Saffari, and P. H. S. Torr. Struck: Structured Output Tracking with Kernels. In ICCV, 2011. [www]
VTS J. Kwon and K. M. Lee. Tracking by Sampling Trackers. In ICCV, 2011. [www]
ASLA ASLA X. Jia, H. Lu, and M.-H. Yang. Visual Tracking via Adaptive Structural Local Sparse Appearance Model. In CVPR, 2012. [www]
DFT DFT L. Sevilla-Lara and E. Learned-Miller. Distribution Fields for Tracking. In CVPR, 2012. [www]
L1APG L1APG C. Bao, Y. Wu, H. Ling, and H. Ji. Real Time Robust L1 Tracker Using Accelerated Proximal Gradient Approach. In CVPR, 2012. [www]
LOT LOT S. Oron, A. Bar-Hillel, D. Levi, and S. Avidan. Locally Orderless Tracking. In CVPR, 2012. [www]
MTT MTT T.Zhang, B. Ghanem,S. Liu,and N. Ahuja. Robust Visual Tracking via Multi-task Sparse Learning. In CVPR, 2012. [www]
ORIA ORIA Y. Wu, B. Shen, and H. Ling. Online Robust Image Alignment via Iterative Convex Optimization. In CVPR, 2012. [www]
SCM SCM W. Zhong, H. Lu, and M.-H. Yang. Robust Object Tracking via Sparsity-based Collaborative Model. In CVPR, 2012. [www]
CSK CSK F. Henriques, R. Caseiro, P. Martins, and J. Batista. Exploiting the Circulant Structure of Tracking-by-Detection with Kernels. In ECCV, 2012. [www]
CT CT K. Zhang, L. Zhang, and M.-H. Yang. Real-time Compressive Tracking. In ECCV, 2012. [www]
LSHT LSHT S. He, Q. Yang, R. W. H. Lau, J. Wang, and M.-H. Yang. [www]
LSS LSS D. Wang, H. Lu, and M.-H. Yang. Least Soft-thresold Squares Tracking. In CVPR, 2013.

Benchmark Results

SRER evaluation results on the TB-50 dataset. Each entry contains the average overlap in percent and the average number of failures in 1000 frames at the overlap threshold 0.5. The trackers are ordered by the average overlap scores, and the top 5 methods in each attribute are denoted by different colors: red, green, blue, cyan, and magenta.

All BC DEF FM IPR IV LR MB OCC OPR OV SV
STRUCK 57.5
/ 3.6
59.3
/ 3.3
52.4
/ 4.6
55.6
/ 3.8
57.0
/ 3.4
59.0
/ 3.3
59.1
/ 3.9
59.9
/ 2.8
55.9
/ 4.1
57.3
/ 3.7
58.9
/ 3.4
57.8
/ 3.6
SCM 54.4
/ 4.1
61.3
/ 2.9
51.5
/ 4.8
42.8
/ 6.5
51.8
/ 4.3
61.1
/ 3.1
61.7
/ 2.5
45.2
/ 5.9
56.8
/ 3.8
57.0
/ 3.8
56.4
/ 4.5
55.8
/ 3.9
ASLA 53.2
/ 4.1
59.2
/ 3.0
50.5
/ 4.5
42.0
/ 6.5
52.1
/ 4.1
59.6
/ 3.0
59.3
/ 2.3
44.6
/ 5.9
56.0
/ 3.8
56.3
/ 3.7
55.3
/ 4.3
54.0
/ 3.9
CSK 52.4
/ 4.9
55.9
/ 4.2
48.1
/ 5.7
45.8
/ 5.8
52.4
/ 4.7
56.2
/ 4.3
55.0
/ 4.8
50.6
/ 5.1
52.7
/ 5.1
53.3
/ 4.9
53.2
/ 4.9
52.0
/ 5.0
L1APG 50.8
/ 4.8
54.8
/ 4.2
44.6
/ 5.8
44.6
/ 6.0
52.0
/ 4.5
52.9
/ 4.7
59.5
/ 3.2
49.2
/ 5.2
50.9
/ 4.8
50.9
/ 5.0
55.5
/ 4.4
51.0
/ 4.7
OAB 50.3
/ 5.3
50.1
/ 5.1
46.0
/ 6.0
47.4
/ 5.7
51.0
/ 4.9
48.3
/ 5.8
56.2
/ 4.5
49.9
/ 5.1
49.2
/ 5.6
49.2
/ 5.6
50.0
/ 5.6
50.8
/ 5.1
VTD 49.3
/ 5.2
55.1
/ 4.2
46.2
/ 5.5
41.7
/ 6.8
50.2
/ 4.6
53.7
/ 4.6
47.1
/ 5.6
43.5
/ 6.3
52.3
/ 4.9
53.7
/ 4.6
51.5
/ 5.4
48.9
/ 5.4
VTS 49.1
/ 5.1
54.7
/ 4.2
46.3
/ 5.5
40.6
/ 6.8
50.0
/ 4.5
53.7
/ 4.4
47.1
/ 5.6
42.6
/ 6.2
52.2
/ 4.8
53.4
/ 4.5
51.2
/ 5.3
48.8
/ 5.3
DFT 49.0
/ 5.6
53.2
/ 4.7
48.1
/ 5.5
41.7
/ 6.3
50.7
/ 5.1
53.0
/ 4.7
47.7
/ 6.3
46.7
/ 5.4
52.7
/ 5.1
53.2
/ 5.0
55.2
/ 4.4
47.9
/ 5.9
LSK 48.6
/ 5.0
53.4
/ 4.1
45.1
/ 5.5
38.9
/ 6.7
48.1
/ 4.8
50.2
/ 4.8
58.5
/ 3.2
39.8
/ 6.5
50.6
/ 4.8
50.0
/ 4.8
47.5
/ 5.5
49.8
/ 4.8
RS 48.4
/ 5.6
48.6
/ 5.1
50.5
/ 5.3
46.7
/ 6.3
47.0
/ 5.8
47.6
/ 5.4
44.5
/ 5.8
46.4
/ 6.0
52.2
/ 5.0
51.9
/ 4.9
53.2
/ 5.0
47.9
/ 5.7
MTT 48.3
/ 5.2
50.7
/ 4.9
40.1
/ 6.6
40.6
/ 6.8
51.5
/ 4.4
50.2
/ 5.0
57.8
/ 3.6
45.5
/ 6.2
47.3
/ 5.5
48.2
/ 5.3
50.4
/ 5.6
48.2
/ 5.3
LSHT 48.3
/ 5.3
52.8
/ 4.4
46.3
/ 5.6
40.6
/ 6.4
48.0
/ 4.9
52.3
/ 4.5
49.0
/ 5.6
42.9
/ 5.6
52.1
/ 4.9
53.7
/ 4.5
53.4
/ 4.2
48.6
/ 5.4
CXT 48.2
/ 5.4
49.4
/ 5.5
37.0
/ 7.2
46.2
/ 5.7
52.1
/ 4.4
48.5
/ 5.4
53.7
/ 5.0
52.0
/ 4.7
45.7
/ 6.0
47.2
/ 5.7
51.0
/ 5.3
48.7
/ 5.5
LSS 47.6
/ 5.6
52.8
/ 4.7
42.7
/ 6.3
39.5
/ 6.6
47.1
/ 5.5
51.4
/ 5.2
56.2
/ 4.1
42.7
/ 6.1
51.2
/ 5.1
50.2
/ 5.4
55.2
/ 4.6
48.5
/ 5.3
TLD 46.8
/ 5.5
48.3
/ 5.4
37.4
/ 7.2
44.6
/ 5.5
48.9
/ 4.9
46.7
/ 5.6
53.3
/ 4.9
51.0
/ 4.5
45.2
/ 5.9
46.0
/ 5.7
50.2
/ 5.0
47.1
/ 5.6
TM 46.7
/ 6.0
49.4
/ 5.4
40.2
/ 6.6
44.8
/ 6.2
47.2
/ 5.7
45.7
/ 6.2
55.6
/ 4.8
48.1
/ 5.5
46.8
/ 5.8
46.3
/ 6.1
52.6
/ 5.1
47.6
/ 5.8
PD 46.6
/ 5.8
45.1
/ 6.1
46.4
/ 6.0
47.6
/ 5.6
48.5
/ 5.2
45.1
/ 6.0
43.2
/ 6.1
50.6
/ 4.7
49.2
/ 5.6
48.9
/ 5.6
52.4
/ 5.2
46.3
/ 5.9
IVT 46.4
/ 5.5
51.6
/ 4.6
40.5
/ 6.4
37.3
/ 6.9
46.4
/ 5.3
51.2
/ 4.8
55.8
/ 3.7
41.3
/ 6.2
49.3
/ 5.1
49.0
/ 5.3
52.3
/ 4.9
47.1
/ 5.3
VR 45.9
/ 6.0
44.8
/ 6.2
45.3
/ 6.2
47.1
/ 5.9
47.9
/ 5.5
43.7
/ 6.4
42.4
/ 6.0
49.7
/ 5.3
48.1
/ 5.9
48.2
/ 5.9
50.8
/ 5.5
45.8
/ 6.2
MIL 45.9
/ 6.1
48.6
/ 5.3
45.7
/ 5.9
44.1
/ 6.5
45.7
/ 5.9
47.1
/ 5.6
43.5
/ 6.8
43.7
/ 6.3
47.6
/ 5.8
48.9
/ 5.7
52.7
/ 5.1
44.5
/ 6.5
LOT 45.5
/ 5.9
48.6
/ 5.2
42.4
/ 6.5
47.1
/ 5.5
43.2
/ 6.3
45.4
/ 5.8
38.1
/ 6.1
46.9
/ 5.3
49.5
/ 5.2
48.5
/ 5.5
49.2
/ 4.8
45.6
/ 5.8
FRAG 44.2
/ 6.6
46.1
/ 5.9
41.8
/ 6.8
44.8
/ 6.4
43.3
/ 6.7
42.6
/ 6.6
42.6
/ 7.3
46.1
/ 6.1
46.6
/ 6.2
46.1
/ 6.4
50.1
/ 5.5
44.2
/ 6.8
KMS 43.8
/ 6.6
44.1
/ 6.2
44.8
/ 6.4
44.6
/ 6.3
42.7
/ 6.8
41.5
/ 6.8
39.4
/ 7.3
43.9
/ 6.1
46.6
/ 6.2
45.8
/ 6.5
45.8
/ 6.2
44.0
/ 6.6
CPF 43.5
/ 6.6
42.8
/ 6.4
44.2
/ 6.8
42.9
/ 6.9
43.1
/ 6.4
41.0
/ 6.9
43.6
/ 5.3
39.8
/ 7.1
47.9
/ 5.8
47.6
/ 5.9
46.4
/ 6.0
44.1
/ 6.6
ORIA 42.4
/ 6.4
47.6
/ 5.9
34.8
/ 7.8
32.8
/ 7.6
44.9
/ 5.5
46.9
/ 5.9
50.8
/ 4.4
36.8
/ 7.3
44.4
/ 6.3
44.9
/ 6.1
46.9
/ 6.2
43.4
/ 6.3
CT 40.4
/ 6.6
43.2
/ 5.9
39.4
/ 6.8
35.7
/ 7.5
42.8
/ 6.0
42.5
/ 6.2
40.0
/ 6.8
37.1
/ 7.2
43.7
/ 6.4
44.9
/ 6.1
47.3
/ 5.9
40.2
/ 6.8
SBT 37.3
/ 7.4
37.3
/ 7.4
28.0
/ 8.5
36.7
/ 7.3
35.5
/ 7.5
34.7
/ 7.7
48.0
/ 6.3
38.3
/ 6.8
36.8
/ 7.4
35.8
/ 7.7
41.0
/ 7.2
38.7
/ 7.2
MS 35.6
/ 7.9
36.7
/ 7.4
32.8
/ 8.0
40.5
/ 7.1
36.8
/ 7.8
34.6
/ 7.8
28.4
/ 9.2
41.2
/ 6.8
37.4
/ 7.7
37.3
/ 7.9
41.0
/ 6.9
36.0
/ 7.9
BSBT 31.4
/ 7.8
30.8
/ 7.8
20.6
/ 8.7
30.8
/ 7.6
31.2
/ 7.6
28.9
/ 8.0
42.4
/ 6.8
32.3
/ 7.4
32.0
/ 7.7
30.4
/ 7.9
36.3
/ 7.2
32.5
/ 7.7
SMS 29.0
/ 8.2
24.2
/ 8.4
29.7
/ 8.5
31.6
/ 7.7
30.4
/ 8.1
26.7
/ 8.3
31.7
/ 8.0
33.0
/ 7.2
33.3
/ 7.9
31.5
/ 8.2
31.0
/ 8.2
29.9
/ 8.3



SRER (TB-50) OPE (50100) SRE (50100) TRE (50/100)
Overall

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IV: Illumination Variation

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SV: Scale Variation

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OCC: Occlusion

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DEF: Deformation

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MB: Motion Blur

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FM: Fast Motion

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IPR: In-Plane Rotation

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OPR: Out-of-Plane Rotation

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OV: Out-of-View

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BC: Background Clutter

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LR: Low Resolution

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